BooksArticles

Methods/Techniques

Landscape/Land Management

Landscape Restoration: Moving from Generalities to Methodologies (2003), by Holl et al, reviews the methods used to assess the role of these processes in past studies, and suggests ways to use past and ongoing restoration activities to increase our understanding of large-scale processes and improve restoration projects.

Linking Restoration and Landscape Ecology (1997) by Bell et al, suggests that restoration and landscape ecology have an unexplored mutualistic relationship that could enhance research and application of both disciplines.

From Biodiversity to Ecodiversity: A Landscape-Ecology Approach to Conservation and Restoration (1994), by Naveh, suggests a new symbiosis between man and nature by broadening the goal of vegetation restoration to ecological and cultural landscape restoration, and thereby to total landscape ecodiversity.

Wetlands

Restoration of a Small-Scale Forest Wetland in a Belgian Nature Reserve: A Discussion of Factors Determining Wetland Vegetation Establishment (2004), by Weyembergh et al, illustrates the importance of past vegetation in affecting current restoration success and provides an example of how restoration projects benefit from knowledge and understanding of both historical and present conditions.

Repairing Wetlands of the Lower Murray: Learning from Restoration Practice (2002), by Jensen.

Marsh Terracing as a Wetland Restoration Tool for Creating Fishery Habitat (2001), by Rozas and Minello, is a relatively new wetland-restoration technique used to convert shallow subtidal bottom to marsh. This method uses existing bottom sediments to form terraces or ridges at marsh elevation.

Wetland Hydrology Restoration Techniques Utilized in the Northeast Arkansas Delta (2001), by Smith, highlights features including sheet or overland flow, meander scrolls or relic channels, vernal pools, habitat mounds, depressions and ridge and swale topography. The restoration efforts in Northeast Arkansas target many of these hydrologic features.

Restoration of Cut-Over Raised Bogs in Southern Germany: A Comparison of Methods (1999), by Sliva and Pfadenhauer, documents several experiments that were carried out in a cut-over bog in southern Germany to develop methods on how to accelerate and/or how to direct the establishment of plants and their succession.

Wetland Restoration in Central Europe: Aims and Methods (1999), by Pfadenhauer and Grootjans, looks at rewetting and oligotrophication as the most common approaches to boost biodiversity in fen ecosystems in Central and Western Europe.

The Restoration of Riparian Wetlands and Macrophytes in Lake Chao, an Eutrophic Chinese Lake: Possibilities and Effects (1999), by Xu et al, highlights experiments with replanting macrophytes in Lake Chao showed that the water quality inside an Alternathera philoxeroides Griseb.and a Phragmites australis community were better than outside.

Restoration of a Canadian Prairie Wetland with Agricultural and Municipal Wastewater (1999), by White, argues that management strategies of this project that satisfied a dual mandate serve as a model to guide managers of other large-scale wetland restoration projects.

Ecological Issues Related to Wetland Preservation, Restoration, Creation and Assessment (1999), by Whigham, looks at wetland protection policies that may be inadequate to preserve and restore ecological processes such as nutrient cycling because they mostly focus on individual wetlands and ignore the fact that wetlands are integral parts of landscapes.

Ecohydrology: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Wetland Management and Restoration (1996), by Wassen and Grootjans.

Restoration and Creation of Freshwater Wetlands using Seed Banks (1992), by van der Valk et al, argues that it is best to collect as many random samples as possible when sampling a wetland seed bank. These can be combined as needed for processing.

Waterfowl Management Techniques for Wetland Enhancement, Restoration and Creation Useful in Mitigation Procedures (1990), by Weller, examines wetland types where procedures have been standardized including those dominated by palustrine persistent emergents, moist-soil nonpersistent emergents, estuarine emergents, and forested palustrine communities.

Lakes/Reservoirs

Eutrophication of Freshwater: A Review of Current Knowledge (2006), by the Foundation for Water Research.

Ecological Engineering Techniques for Lake Restoration in Japan (2002), by Zhen, a training course stressing their vital importance in Japan.

Lake Restoration in Denmark (2000), by Sodergaard et al, discusses the most frequently used method, now used in more than 20 lakes, as the reduction of zooplanktivorous and benthivorous fish.

Multiple Techniques for Lake Restoration (1999), by Annadotter et al, shows the increased transparency made possible the development of submerged macrophytes such as Elodea, Myriophyllum and Potamogeton. The internal loading of phosphorus decreased dramatically in 1994 and 1995, possibly as a result of reduced sedimentation of phytoplankton.

Minimising the Risk and Amplifying the Opportunities for Restoration of Shallow Reservoirs (1999), by Zalewski, includes rehabilitating buffer zones, renaturalising river channel morphology, regulating the flow regime of the incoming river as a means of modifying the nutrient supply, creating wetland systems and applying a variety of biomanipulation techniques.

Techniques for Establishing Native Aquatic Plants (1998), by Smart et al, describes a new Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP) work unit to develop methods for large-scale establishment of desirable native aquatic plants in man-made systems.

Sediment Dredging and Macrophyte Harvest as Lake Restoration Techniques (1998), by Klein, argues that cultural eutrophication, which is the acceleration of the natural aging process through human inputs, is a major problem facing lakes around the world.

Progressive Restoration of a Shallow Lake: A 12-Year Experiment in Isolation, Sediment Removal and Biomanipulation (1996), by Moss et al, concludes that there was no correlation between chlorophyll and nutrients but a strong inverse correlation with Daphnia numbers.

Possibilities and Limits of Ecotechnological Methods for Lake Restoration (1995) by Koschel, shows that an increase in animal biofiltration (food-web manipulation) and nutrient reduction by flocculation and precipitation (calcite) can accelerate the regeneration of lakes.

Optimum Operation of Restoration Techniques for Eutrophic Water Bodies (1994), by Hagen and Kleeberg, describes continuous operation or appropriate time or depth variant operating rules that are required to achieve the goal of restoration.

Living Lakes: An Aquatic Liming and Fish Restoration Demonstration Program (1988), by Brocksen and Emler, is an evaluation of seven different liming technologies on 22 lakes and 10 streams in 6 states.

Evaluation of Aeration/Circulation as a Lake Restoration Technique (1981), by Pastorok et al, concludes with the enhancement of water quality for consumptive uses, control of algal blooms, improvement of recreational fisheries, and an increase in distribution and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates.

Experience with Lake and Reservoir Restoration Techniques in the German Democratic Republic (1980), by Klapper, where the most important methods and measures to prevent water pollution and to control and restore the ecosystems are evaluated from the viewpoint of applied limnology in the GDR.

Proposals for Macrophyte Restoration in Eutrophic Coastal Lagoons (?), by Comin et al, outlines various techniques to reduce nutrient loadings to the lagoon and phytoplankton in order to favour macrophyte re-colonization

Rivers/Streams

Standards for Ecologically Successful River Restoration (2005), by Palmer et al, propose five criteria for measuring success, with emphasis on an ecological perspective.

Restoring Stream Ecosystems: Lessons from a Midwestern State (2004), by Moerke and Lamberti, provides basic information on midwestern restoration strategies, which is needed to identify strengths and weaknesses in current practices and to better inform future stream restorations.

Riparian Forest Restoration: Why Each Site Needs an Ecological Prescription (2004), by Sweeney and Czapka, concludes that most prescriptions for restoring a diverse and natural streamside forest need to include a proactive program to enhance the survival and growth of seedlings.

Riparian Forest Restoration: Increasing Success by Reducing Plant Competition and Herbivory (2002), by Sweeney et al, argues that only plots where seedlings were assisted by a combination of tree shelters and either herbicide or tree mats exhibited an “acceptable or minimum” rate of survivorship for riparian forest restoration in the region.

A Review of Stream Restoration Techniques and a Hierarchical Strategy for Prioritizing Restoration in Pacific Northwest Watersheds (2002), by Roni et al, present a hierarchical strategy based on three elements: (1) principles of watershed processes, (2) protecting existing high-quality habitats, and (3) current knowledge of the effectiveness of specific techniques.

Native American Methods for Conservation and Restoration of Semiarid Ephemeral Streams (2002), by Norton et al, highlights methods developed by the Zuni Indians during more than 2,000 years of farming on dynamic alluvial fans that combine brush removal with ephemeral channel-erosion control and show promise for effective watershed-scale conservation and restoration.

Ecosystem Recovery in Restored Headwater Streams: The Role of Enhanced Leaf Retention (2002), by Muokta and Laasonen, combine replicated field experiments and a field survey to provide an ecosystem-level measure of stream restoration success.

Riparian Restoration Techniques for Improving Wildlife Habitat and Stream Quality in Kentucky (2001), by Workman and Phillips, advocate the introduction of specific streamside plant life in a restoration area in addition to the alteration of stream hydrology that promotes more lateral water movement.

Riparian Restoration in British Colombia (2000), by Poulin et al, analyze the results of a survey to determine what is needed to enable future planning and implementation of effective and efficient riparian restoration.

Riparian Forest Restoration along Large Rivers: Initial Results from the Sacramento River Project (1999), by Alpert et al, conducted a post-hoc analysis of monitoring data collected by the project on 1–4-year old plantings of 10 native trees and shrubs at five sites.

River Restoration Projects of Southwest Germany: Aim and Development (1998), by Hartmann and Dittrich, where four major restoration projects are presented.

Lessons Learned from River Restoration Projects in California (1997), by Kondolf, including restoration projects should be planned and designed based on an understanding of geomorphological and ecological processes.

Ecological Appraisal of Fisheries Restoration Techniques in Lowland Rivers (1994), by Harper, Randall and Taylor, where riffle re-instatement is considered to be an excellent method for the improvement of habitat diversity in rivers depauperised by past engineering works.

Sediment and Erosion Control Techniques on Stream Restoration Projects (?), by Clinton et al, describe the application of innovative erosion and sediment control techniques for stream restoration construction projects.

Linking Form and Function: Towards an Eco-Hydromorphic Approach to Sustainable River Restoration (2003), by Clarke et al, argues that river restoration will only be sustainable if it is undertaken within a process-driven and strategic framework with inputs from a wide range of specialists.

Forests

Evaluation of Establishment Techniques on Eucalyptus nitens and E. pauciflora in the Midlands of Tasmania (2005), by Close et al.

Reforestation with Native Tree Species using Site Preparation Techniques for the Restoration of Woodlands Degraded by Air Pollution in the Erzgebirge, Germany (2004), by El Kateb et al, where three tree species were studied with regard to fencing and site preparation techniques with eight levels: a control and seven amelioration techniques.

An Afforestation System for Restoring Bottomland Hardwood Forests: Biomass Accumulation of Nuttall Oak Seedlings Interplanted Beneath Eastern Cottonwood (2004), by Gardiner et al, suggest that an afforestation system involving rapid establishment of forest cover with a quick-growing plantation species, followed by understory enrichment with species of later succession, may provide an alternative method of forest restoration on bottomland hardwood sites and perhaps other sites degraded by agriculture throughout temperate regions.

Mt. Trumbull Ponderosa Pine Ecosystem Restoration Project (2003), by Moore et al, describes recent and current studies on the Parashant National Monument in northern Arizona.

Allocation of River Flows for Restoration of Floodplain Forest Ecosystems: A Review of Approaches and Their Applicability in Europe (2003), by Hughs and Rood, where the potential to apply existing environmental flow methodologies to the management of European floodplain forests is discussed.

Champlain Valley Clayplain Forest Restoration: A Landowner’s Guide (2003), by Adrian et al, is an effort to document the planning, supplies, costs, and processes associated with a specific restoration project.

Uses for Small-Diameter and Low-Value Forest Thinnings (2003), by LeVan-Green and Livingston.

Forest Restoration Experiment on the Pagosa Springs Ranger District, San Juan National Forest, Colorado (2002), by Korb et al, attempts to establish and monitor a replicated forest management experiment in the warm-dry mixed conifer forests of Lower Middle Mountain in the Pagosa Springs Ranger District.

Restoration of the Native Woody-Species Diversity, Using Plantation Species as Foster Trees, in the Degraded Highlands of Ethiopia (2002), by Yirdaw, argues that natural forest stands near a restoration site can initially provide baseline data for the evaluation of the extent and rate of woody plant recruitment and establishment in plantations.

Thinning, Fire, and Forest Restoration (2000), by Brown, attempts to explore the scientific basis for what we appear to know, how we might proceed, and what we need to learn.

Ecological Properties for the Evaluation, Management, and Restoration of Temperate Deciduous Forest Ecosystems (1996), by Keddy and Drummond, addresses the challenge to preserve remnant forests, restore altered forests, and harvest managed forests in a sustainable manner.

Restoring Caribbean Dry Forests: Evaluation of Tree Propagation Techniques (1995), by Ray and Brown, suggests that early secondary dry forest may be best restored by underplanting within the existing vegetation.

Grasslands

Heathland Restoration on Former Agricultural Land: Effects of Artificial Acidification on the Availability and Uptake of Toxic Metal Cations (2007), by Green et al, investigates the effect of two chemical treatments used in heathland restoration, elemental sulphur and ferrous sulphate, on soil acidity and whether it is possible to predict the effect of the treatments on availability of two potentially toxic cations (Al and Cd) in the soil along with their subsequent accumulation in the shoots of the grass Agrostis capillaris.

Restoring Australia’s Temperate Grasslands and Grassy Woodlands: Integrating Function and Diversity (2005), by Prober and Thiele, explains how restoration of grassy ecosystems can be improved through an understanding of their key natural patterns and processes, and the ways these change during degradation.

Restoration of Dry, Montane Meadows through Prescribed Fire, Vegetation, and Fuels Management (2005), by Swanson et al, designed these studies to yield useful short-term products for scientists, managers, and the public, and in doing so, to provide opportunities for ongoing research, experimentation, and education.

Plant Succession and Approaches to Community Restoration (2005) by Roundy, advocates the large scale of wildfires and weed invasion requires large-scale approaches to restoration. Practices and equipment from traditional rangeland revegetation are being adapted to establish diverse, native communities.

Effect of Planting Season, Bunchgrass Species, and Neighbor Control on the Success of Transplants for Grassland Restoration (2005), by Page and Bork, looks at how constraints to grassland and open forest restoration (e.g., poor seed sources, yearly variation in establishment, and the persistence of weeds) necessitate the development of innovative methods to restore bunchgrass communities.

Grassland Restoration: Strengthening Our Underpinnings (2005), by McDonald.

Restoration of Species Richness in Abandoned Mediterranean Grasslands: Seeds in Cattle Dung (2003), by Traba et al, proves the potential utility of this treatment for the restoration of species richness in abandoned pastures, although supplementary steps are necessary, including further sowing and/or shrub cutting in subsequent years.

Top-Soil Translocation as a Technique in the Re-creation of Species-Rich Meadows (2003), by Vecrin and Muller, showed that the soil translocation technique permitted the development of many meadow species, including two legally protected species, and few ruderal species despite a large area of bare ground.

A Molecular Approach to Provenance Delineation for the Restoration of Hummock Grasslands (Triodia spp.) in Arid-Tropical Australia (2003), by Wells et al, concludes that the assessment of provenance boundaries through the use of genetic markers is becoming a realistic option for the development of more genetically representative sourcing of genotypes in plant restoration programmes.

A Test of Mowing and Soil-Removal Restoration Techniques in Wet Heaths of the High Ardenne, Belgium (2003), by Jacquemart et al, was attempted in four plots of a degraded wet heath overgrown by Molinia caerulea in High Ardenne (Belgium).

Restoration of Species-Rich Flood-Plain Meadows from Abandoned Arable Fields in NE France (2002), by Vecrin et al, three years after sowing, the vegetation of our experimental site is moving slowly towards the target communities but impoverished seed sources seem to limit the success of this restoration operation and will lead to under-saturated communities.

Restoring Prairie Processes to Farmlands (2002), by Jackson.

Restoration of Wet Fen Meadows by Topsoil Removal: Vegetation Development and Germination Biology of Fen Species (2001), by Patzelt et al, was part of a fen restoration project, which deals with the rehabilitation of a deeply drained peat land used for intensive agriculture for more than 200 years.

Ecological Restoration and Habitat Renewal of the South Okanagan Shrub-Steppe (1999), by Atwood, has 2 objectives: (1) to restore the community structure, function, and species composition of the natural habitat; and (2) to develop effective and economical restoration techniques for degraded natural systems.

Techniques for Heathland Restoration in England (1999), by Schuna, covers the various techniques used in heathland restoration including the transplantation of entire heather turves, the use of heather topsoil, restoration of heathland on old farm fields, the use of heather litter, the harvest of heather shoots, and bracken control as a means of heathland restoration. Each of these techniques has usefulness in particular situations.

Control of Bracken and Restoration of Heathland (1998), by Marrs et al, examines the effectiveness of a range of bracken control and heathland restoration treatments on bracken performance over an 18-year period on a Calluna heath in Breckland, UK.

Imidazolinone Herbicides Improve Restoration of Great Plains Grasslands (1996), by Masters et al, provides evidence that the imidazolinone herbicides can be important components of integrated weed management strategies designed to reverse deterioration of grasslands by reestablishing native species, improving grassland productivity, and decreasing the prevalence of exotic weeds.

The Potential for Heathland Restoration on Formerly Arable Land at a Site in Drenthe, The Netherlands (1995), by Aerts et al, shows that heathland restoration at this study site requires a substantial reduction of P availability in the soil together with the active introduction of heather propagules. Topsoil removal appears to be an effective means of reducing nutrient availability.

A Comparison of Techniques for Restoring Heathland on Abandoned Farmland (1995), by Pywell et al, discusses opportunities to restore heathland vegetation on lowland sites where it once occurred.

The Role of Seedbank and Sown Seeds in the Restoration of an English Flood-Meadow (1993), by McDonald, looks at an opportunity to make use of an area (referred to as Somerford Mead) which had recently been used for intensive grass or cereal production but which originally had been a permanent hay-meadow.

Restoration of Native Grasses in California Old Fields II: Cheap Tills (?), Stromberg et al, provides information on one of the least expensive methods of native grass restoration that deals with the problems of exotic weeds and gopher disturbance.

Coastal/Marine

Using Agent-Based Models to Aid Reef Restoration: Enhancing Coral Cover and Topographic Complexity through the Spatial Arrangement of Coral Transplants (2005), by Sleeman et al, suggests that even-spaced grided transplanting arrangements provide the fastest increase in coral cover and three-dimensional habitat space (topographic complexity) across large temporal scales (<30 years) for corals with r-selected life history strategies.

An Experimental Evaluation of Different Methods of Restoring Phyllospadix torreyi (Surfgrass) (2004), by Bull et al, concludes that transplanted sprigs had the greatest overall increase in aerial coverage per unit effort, suggesting that this method may be the most effective approach for restoring P. torreyi.

National Review of Innovative and Successful Coastal Habitat Restoration (2004), by Borde, provides information on restoration research and the innovative and successful components of funding, partnerships, planning, restoration methods and techniques, monitoring, adaptive management, information dissemination, and community involvement.

On the Loss of Saltmarshes in South-East England and Methods for their Restoration (2004), by Hughs and Paramor, concludes that the causes of saltmarsh loss are not related to sea level rise calls into question this dependence on management realignment as the most appropriate means of saltmarsh creation, not least because many realignment areas are unlikely to develop vegetation.

Effect of Planting Unit Size and Sediment Stabilization on Seagrass Transplants in Western Australia (2003), by van Keulen et al, examines the effect of increasing planting unit size and stabilizing sediment for two seagrass planting methods at Carnac Island, Western Australia in 1993.

Roads as Ecological Edges for Rehabilitating Coastal Dune Assemblages in Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (2003), by Weiermans and van Aarde, warns that the generality of the edge concept should be approached with caution when dealing with taxa comprising species with such diverse natural histories as in the present study.

Eelgrass Restoration Techniques (2002), by Gayaldo, in which a blend of low-cost restoration techniques was completed beneath and adjacent to a highly utilized commercial dock in order to restore the submarine environment to a condition that would promote the natural recolonization of Z. marina.

Restoration of Salt Marshes in the Netherlands (2002), by Bakker et al, argues that the possibilities for restoration of inland halophytic plant communities seem much lower than after de-embankment of summerpolders.

Restoration of Coastal Dune Slacks in the Netherlands (2002), by Grootjans et al, argues that new and more flexible coastal defense strategies can provide new opportunities for natural and relatively stable pioneer stages of dune slack formation, suitable for the long term preservation of endangered dune slack species.

Sand Dune Management Problems and Techniques, Spain (2002), by Gomez-Pina et al, concludes that the main dune problems found along the Spanish coastline are outlined, paying particular attention to the analysis of certain case studies and an overview of the different dune restoration techniques used is given.

Strategies for Gardening Denuded Coral Reef Areas: The Applicability of Using Different Types of Coral Material for Reef Restoration (2001), by Epstein, suggests that reef gardening may be used as a key management tool in conservation and restoration of denuded reef areas.

Transplantation and Alteration of Submarine Environment for Restoration of Zoster marina: A Case Study at Curtis Wharf, Washington (2001), by Gayaldo et al, uses a blend of restoration techniques, we have altered the nearshore zone on the southern side of Guemes Channel so that an in situ eelgrass (Zostera marina) population has expanded (rhizomal) and new patches are forming (seed dispersal).

Restoration and Management of Mangrove Systems: A Lesson for and from the East African Region (2001), by Kairo et al, outlines the activities of mangrove restoration and management around the world with particular emphasis on Eastern Africa.

Management-Free Techniques for Restoration of Eisenia and Ecklonia Beds along the Central Pacific Coast of Japan (2001), by Terawaki et al, includes suggestions to enhance Eisenia and Ecklonia bed restoration using management-freetechniques such as raising the bottom, elevating substrata above the sandybottom, and providing substrata of a shape suitable for the attachment of kelp.

Monitoring of Black Mangrove Restoration with Nursery-Reared Seedlings on an Arid Coastal Lagoon (2001), by Toledo et al, shows the feasibility of restoring destroyed arid-coast lagoons with black mangroves.

The Case for Restoration of Tropical Coastal Ecosystems (2000), by Yap.

New Cut Dune/Marsh Restoration (2000), by Armbruster et al, involves the restoration of approximately 239 acres of open water to sustainable beach, dune, barrier flat, and marsh habitat.

Mangrove Restoration: Do We Know Enough? (2000), by Ellison, examines the goals of existing mangrove restoration projects and determine whether these goals are clear and adequate, and whether or not they account for the full range of biological diversity and ecological processes of mangrove ecosystems.

Salt Marsh Tidal Channel Morphometry: Applications for Wetland Creation and Restoration (1999), by Zeff, investigates morphometry of tidal channels in a back-barrier salt marsh in New Jersey.

Rehabilitation of Mangrove Ecosystems: An Overview (1998), by Field, concept and goals of mangrove ecosystem rehabilitation are considered and contrasted with ideas of ecosystem restoration.

Restoration of Temperate Marine and Coastal Ecosystems: Nudging Nature (1998), by Hawkins et al, summarizes the main impacts on marine ecosystems and the potential for their restoration is discussed in relation to their key features. Rocky shores, seagrass beds and disused docks are focused on.

Artificial Reef Construction as a Soft-Bottom Habitat Restoration Tool (1997), by Culter, examines innovative reef designs were constructed of lightweight PVC pipe and conduit. Two reef types were deployed, one which floats on the surface of the substratum and a second elevated above the substratum by means of a monopile.

Techniques for Coastal Restoration and Fishery Enhancement in Florida (1975), by Darovec et al, includes planting densities, time of transplanting, and procedures for removal and care are discussed for each section. Only small projects are advisable using current technology, additionally, guidelines describe habitat augmentation using artificial fishing reefs and oyster reefs.

Can Self-Fertilizing Coral Species be Used to Enhance Restoration of Caribbean Reefs? (?), by Gleason et al, suggests that hermaphroditic brooders meet at least two of the criteria needed for successful coral transplantation programs.

Low-Tech Coral Reef Restoration Methods Modeled after Natural Fragmentation Processes (?), by Bowden-Kerby, include scattering coral fragments onto unstable rubble or attaching fragments to simple frames on sand proved effective for restoring coral cover to substrates where natural larval-based recruitment processes are inhibited.

Seagrass Transplanting and Restoration in Tampa Bay (?), by Ehringer and Anderson, decribes new techniques for seagrass recovery that include: a seagrass formula for regrowth into prop scars, an injecting boat that can inject nutrients into prop scars, and a planting boat that can plant short shoots of Halodule wrightii in bare root or in peat pots.

Artificial Reefs for Submerged and Subaerial Habitat Protection, Mitigation and Restoration (?), by Harris and Woodring, presents methods for using artificial reefs to provide protection of existing natural reefs, mitigation of damages to natural reefs, and restoration and enhancement of marine and shoreline areas.

Deserts/Arid Lands

Suitability of Drought-Preconditioning Techniques in Mediterranean Climate (2003), by Vilagrossa et al, concludes that sensitivity to drought preconditioning may be related to drought tolerance or avoidance strategy of each species.

Sacred Forests in Tibet: Using Geographical Information Systems for Forest Rehabilitation (2003), by Miehe et al, established an inventory of forest relics, correlated residual tree stands with climatic data, and successfully cultivated nonirrigated indigenous junipers and cypresses.

A 10-Year Study on Techniques for Vegetation Restoration in a Desertified Salt Lake Area (2002), by Gao et al, argues that vegetation restoration is one of the most common and effective ways to combat desertification and prevent adjacent areas from sand encroachment in many of the desertified regions of the world.

Alternative Irrigation Systems for Arid Land Restoration (2002), by Bainbridge, discusses the pros and cons of standard and alternative means of watering plants.

Management of Indigenous Plant-Microbe Symbioses Aids Restoration of Desertified Ecosystems (2000), by Requena et al, concludes that the introduction of target indigenous species of plants associated with a managed community of microbial symbionts is a successful biotechnological tool to aid the recovery of desertified ecosystems.

Dryland Restoration and Rehabilitation (1999), by Aronson et al.

Desertification Control and Rangeland Management in the Thar Desert of India (?), by Sinha et al, examines the introduction of fast growing exotic species of trees and grasses from isoclimatic regions of the world for stabilization of shifting sand dunes; creation of ‘microclimates’ through shelterbelt plantations; and creation of ‘fencing and enclosures’ for regeneration of indigenous species.

Genetic Variation and Revegetation Strategies for Desert Rangeland Ecosystems (1995), by Munda and Smith, argues that efficient plant breeding systems developed for use with crop plants can be adapted to produce more genetically appropriate populations for use in rangeland revegetation.

Flora/Fauna

Response to Two Years of Restoration Techniques in an Existing Sidalcea nelsoniana Habitat (2004), by Wilson, tested the effectiveness of two years of prescribed burning and mowing as restoration techniques for existing S. nelsoniana populations and habitat.

Are Functional Guilds More Realistic Management Units than Individual Species for Restoration? (2004), by Brown, concludes that functional guilds provide realistic conceptual units to ensure that restored plant communities include species that confer the ecological functions of most importance the majority of the time.

Restoring Plant Communities (2003), by van Diggelen and Marrs.

Restoration of Fragmented Landscapes for the Conservation of Birds: A General Framework and Specific Recommendations for Urbanizing Landscapes (2001), by Marzluff and Ewing, reviews why fragmentation is detrimental to wildlife (especially birds), review the effects of urbanization on birds inhabiting nearby native habitats, suggest how restoration ecologists can minimize these effects, and discuss future research needs.

Introduced Mammals and Models for Restoration (2001), by Atkinson, argues that restoring biological components of these regimes are far greater than those available for restoring physical conditions.

Plains Bison Restoration in the Canadian Rocky Mountains? Ecological and Management Considerations (2001), by White et al, summarizes some perspectives on the ecological significance of bison, potential habitat use and movement patterns, and implications for management.

Development of Restoration Techniques for Hawaiian Thrushes: Collection of Wild Eggs, Artificial Incubation, Hand-rearing, Captive-breeding, and Re-introduction to the Wild (2000), by Kuehler et al, examines the first endangered passerine recovery program using this broad spectrum of management techniques (collection of wild eggs, artificial incubation, hand-rearing, captive-breeding, and release) in which re-introduced birds survived and bred in the wild.

Restoration of Sturgeons: Lessons from the Caspian Sea Sturgeon Ranching Programme (2000), by Secor et al, looks at aquaculture-based restoration in Russia, now viewed a chief means of rebuilding stocks of Caspian Sea sturgeons.

Reproductive Behavior, Captive Breeding, and Restoration Ecology of Endangered Fishes (1999), by Rakes et al, argues that captive production of nongame fishes can aid recovery of rare species or populations, aid in watershed restoration, and can help to refine water quality standards.

Restoration of Fish Habitats (1998), by Hopkins et al, briefly outlines the importance, values and functions of marine wetland areas, as well as the responsibilities of DPI Fisheries in relation to administration of the Fisheries Act 1994.

Strategies for Land-Bird Conservation on Mauritius (1998), by Safford and Jones, argue that the most effective conservation measure must not be assumed always to be the rehabilitation of native vegetation.

An Evaluation of Instream Habitat Restoration Techniques on Salmonid Populations in a Newfoundland Stream (1997), by de Jong et al.

Exploring the Role of Captive Broodstock Programs in Salmon Restoration (?), by Arkush and Siri, discusses one method to prevent extinction is gene banking by means of rearing broodstock in captivity for use in supplementing rare and endangered stocks.

Ecology and Management of Arundo donax and Approaches to Riparian Habitat Restoration in Southern California (?), by Bell, describes how Arundo donax dramatically alters the ecological/successional processes in riparian systems and ultimately moves most riparian habitats towards pure stands of this alien grass.

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