Streambank Revegetation and Protection: A Guide for Alaska (2005), by Walter et al, specifically focuses on native species revegetation in riparian areas. We have decided to include some revegetation techniques, which may be utilized in upland and other wetland areas.

Planning for Restoration: A Decision Analysis Approach to Prioritization (2005), by Cipollini et al, advocates that decision analysis can provide a framework for systematically deconstructing a complex problem and providing greater objectivity to restoration decisions.

“How Local Is Local?”—A Review of Practical and Conceptual Issues in the Genetics of Restoration (2005), by McKay et al, offers some practical, commonsense guidelines for the consideration of genetic structure when restoring natural plant populations.

Standards for Ecologically Successful River Restoration (2005), by Palmer et al, propose five criteria that must be met for a river restoration project to be considered ecologically successful. They suggest standards of evaluation for each of the five criteria and provide examples of suitable indicators.

Stream Habitat Restoration Guidelines (2004), by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, includes topics like site, reach, and watershed assessment, problem identification, general approaches to restoring stream and riparian habitat, factors to consider in identifying and selecting an approach, approaches to solving common restoration objectives, and stream and riparian habitat restoration techniques.

Reciprocal Model for Meeting Ecological and Human Needs in Restoration Projects (1999), by Geist and Galatowitsch, examines the ways commitment to restoration could be increased by developing beneficial relationships between humans and the natural environment. Their model suggests that community-based projects will be most successful when experts train the group in restoration decision making, when expertise and leadership are developed within the group, and when participants experience group cohesiveness and a sense of personal reward.

Citizen’s Guide to the Design of Sustainable Streambank Protection and Riparian Habitat Restoration Practices (1998), by Greene and Geomatics, provides an accessible introduction to the watershed as it forms a convenient unit for the consideration of the processes that form landscapes.

Restoration Ecology and the Ecosystem Perspective (1997), by Ehrenfeld and Toth, considers the ecosystem functions of a restoration project and explores conceptual tools for structuring and evaluating restoration. The nature of restoration projects provides a unique opportunity for research on these problems; the large spatial scale of restorations and the freedom to manipulate species, soil, water, and even the landscape could allow ecosystem-level experiments to be conducted that could not be performed otherwise.

A Planning and Decision-Making Framework for Ecological Restoration (1995), by Wyant et al, presents a decision framework to help organize and clarify different phases of the decision process. They argue that restoration planning should include a wider spectrum of participants and decisions than have traditionally been employed.

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