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Temperate Forest

The temperate forest ecosystem with its mild winters, warm summers, and abundant rainfall is generally divided into three categories: (1) temperate coniferous forests that are composed of cedar, cypress, fir, juniper, pine, and spruce forests with a simple two layer vegetative structure, (2) temperate deciduous forests that are dominated by broad-leaved trees (oak, beech, elm and maple) and able to support a wider (and more complex) variety of flora and fauna, and (3) temperate mixed forests (coniferous and deciduous) that include the temperate rainforests in coastal areas with high rainfall such as the US Pacific Northwest.

Temperate forest ecosystems with their four distinct seasons are found throughout the middle latitudes most commonly in the northern hemisphere (US, Europe, and Asia) and less so in the southern (Latin America, Australia and New Zealand). Due to their climatic desirability, these forests are perhaps the most exploited and degraded in the world primarily as a result of unsustainable harvesting and development, clearing for agriculture/livestock, acid rain, and introduced pathogens.


Arizona Forest Health Advisory Council
Many of Arizona’s forests—especially Arizona’s extensive ponderosa forests—have undergone a dramatic transformation during the past century due to land use, climate, and other factors. These changes have increased insect and disease outbreaks, abnormally severe fires, and adversely affected biological, cultural, and economic values. The unacceptable risk posed by these conditions requires immediate and strategic action. Thus emerged the Guiding Principles for Forest Ecosystem Restoration and Community Protection as well as the Guiding Principles for a New Economy Based on Forest Restoration.

Edible Forest Gardens
Edible Forest Gardens is dedicated to offering inspiring and practical information on the vision, ecology, design, and stewardship of perennial polycultures of multipurpose plants in small-scale settings. We intend this website to grow into an information and networking resource for newcomers, amateurs, students, and serious practitioners and researchers alike.

Exploring the Temperate Rainforest
The ancient forests of northwestern North America stretch from the redwoods of northern California to the Sitka spruce and Douglas fir of southeastern Alaska. How to utilize these natural resources has become a subject of intense debate among several competing interests.

FAO State of the World’s Forests
As forests are complex ecosystems requiring balanced and sustainable management, one of the main challenges today is to reconcile the often conflicting priorities of those who depend on them for a whole range of goods and services. It is also necessary to take into account the ways in which forests affect and are affected by policies outside the forest sector. Such a comprehensive approach requires innovative partnerships and better linkages at all levels and across sectors.

Forest Light
Forest Light is a collection of more than 30,000 photographs taken over a period of many years by Alan Featherstone Watson, the founder of Trees for Life. Working with both 35 mm and medium format cameras, he has traveled all over the world to put together one of the most comprehensive collections of tree and forest photographs available today.

Global Forest Watch, an initiative of the World Resources Institute

National Association of State Foresters (NASF)
NASF is a non-profit organization that represents the directors of all 50 State Forestry agencies, the eight U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia. Through public-private partnerships, NASF seeks to discuss, develop, sponsor and promote programs and activities which will advance the practice of sustainable forestry, the conservation and protection of forest lands and associated resources and the establishment and protection of forests in the urban environment.

Shades of Green: Earth’s Forests
When most people look at a forest, they see a large number of trees close together. But forests are much more than that. They are interconnected communities of diverse organisms — bacteria and fungi, gigantic trees, birds, shrubs, ants and beetles, fish, and mammals. Forests cover about 30% of the earth’s land masses, and the forests can be viewed from the microscopic realm to a global perspective.

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