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Freshwater wetland ecosystems occur where the ground is either permanently or periodically saturated by water and/or the water table is at or near the surface. These lowland environments are often referred to as bogs, swamps, fens, or marshes in which vegetation is particularly well adapted to waterlogged (hydric) soil conditions. Frequently located near rivers, lakes, and estuaries, wetlands are crucial habitat for wildlife and represent an important transitional zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

Wetlands perform a number of important ecosystem services such as regulating water flows, protecting shorelines from erosion, improving water quality through filtration, and providing breeding/nesting grounds for fish and birds. Human activities such as waste disposal, and the filling, draining, and damming of wetlands are causing a number of adverse affects and seriously impairing their ecosystem function.


EPA River Corridor and Wetland Restoration
Restoration is a complex process that requires planning, implementation, monitoring, and management. It involves renewing natural and historical wetlands that have been lost or degraded and reclaiming their functions and values as vital ecosystems. Restoring our lost and degraded wetlands to their natural state is essential to ensure the health of America’s watershed. Read their Principles for the Ecological Restoration of Aquatic Resources or visit their comprehensive Links by State and Local Governments page.

Environment Waikato – Restoring a Wetland
You may wish to create or restore a wetland to attract wildlife, maintain water quality or for aesthetic reasons. With all restoration efforts, the aim should be to keep it simple. The goal should be a wetland that takes care of itself with little effort from you.

Kenyon College Biology Department – Wetland Restoration
Ecology has come a very long way over the past decade. Ecologists are now taking responsibility to help restore degraded ecosystems. A question that is common in restoration ecology is one that concerns the actual ability of human kind to restore nature’s natural functions. Over time, we understand that nature will be able to repair itself; given a sufficient amount of time, nature will be able to remedy what we have destroyed or altered.

Michigan Department of Natural Resources – Wetland Restoration Techniques
Historically, Michigan had an estimated 11 million acres of wetlands or about one-third of the state’s land mass. Since European settlement, over 35 percent of these wetlands have been lost. Wetland restoration techniques provide private landowners with an opportunity to benefit wildlife, themselves, and their community. If at one time a wetland existed on your land, you might be able to restore it. This chapter explains how.

Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS)
The Society’s objective is to increase public understanding of wetland issues and to promote sound public policy through the development and communication of position papers that are based upon the best available scientific information. Read their Position Paper on the Definition of Wetland Restoration.

WETKIT – Tools for Working with Wetlands in Canada
Good, practical advice for wetland problems. WetKit provides answers to the most common questions about wetlands, such as: Why are wetlands important? How can my activities affect wetlands? How can wetland conservation benefit my business? Where can I get help? WetKit’s search engines also help users access tools by environmental issue, geographic region, sector or activity, or tool format.

Wetlands of the Central and Southern California Coast and Coastal Watersheds
This report is the culmination of an extensive effort to provide a methodology to demonstrate the richness and importance of the depleted and often overlooked wetland resources. Yes, California not only has wetlands, but they are frequently unique and often provide functions and values that distinguish them from other places in North America. Although restoration efforts for many types of wetlands either have begun or are based on a rather extensive body of local knowledge, no information has been provided to date to suggest that they are renewable.

Wetland Restoration Manual for High School Students
Wetland Restoration can range from a major creek corridor renovation to removing old concrete dams and other barriers so water can move naturally.  Restorations can be the endeavors of a few concerned citizens or the collaboration of many city governments and federal agencies. Depending on the scale that you would like to restore, anything is possible with enough money and volunteer support.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources – Wetland Restoration Handbook
This new edition of the Wetland Restoration Handbook, published by the Wisconsin DNR, continues to encourage responsible and effective restoration of wetlands. The authors once again present the fundamentals of wetland restoration in a fun and exciting way. Just as in the first edition, colorful quotes and interesting side-bars provide insight into all aspects of the field. New pictures, photos and chapters were added to the second edition, as well as an expanded reference section highlighting top web sites to visit.

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