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Freshwater lake and pond ecosystems tend to have restricted species diversity, particularly, below the surface, as they are generally isolated from other aquatic habitats. Ponds tend to be seasonal whereas lakes can exist for hundreds of years. Due to its warmth, sunlight and shallow water, the littoral zone (that closest to the shore) supports the most biodiversity: plants, fish, amphibians, and birds. The habitat of the limnetic zone (near surface habitat in the center) is dominated by plankton and a variety of fish. The profundal zone (deep water below the limnetic zone) is colder and darker where some fish survive on dead organic matter that filters down.

The health and biodiversity of our lake and pond ecosystems are in danger as a result of human disturbances that result in acidification, eutrophication, and toxic contamination as well as unsustainable pumping and diversions that are often combined with the invasion of exotic species and climatic changes.


Comparison of Alternative Lake Restoration Methods
A short table discussing the advantages and disadvantages of different methods.

EPA Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds – Clean Lakes
Lake ecosystems support complex and important food web interactions and provide habitat needed to support numerous threatened and endangered species.

Lake Restoration and Applied Limnology
A rare opportunity for ecologist to study whole system manipulations.

Lake Restoration – Basics Concepts
A concise outline of terms and methods.

Lake Restoration: What’s Involved?
Lake restoration is not just a yearly process of adding chemicals to an affected lake. Restoration is complex and expensive, usually requiring financial capabilities and statutory authority beyond those available to a lake association.

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