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Estuaries, Marshes & Mangroves

Estuaries are those regions where freshwater rivers and streams merge with the ocean creating a home for mangrove colonies (in tropical zones) and salt marshes that harbor a variety of birds, crustaceans, and shellfish. Mangrove and salt marsh communities are important habitats located on the intertidal fringes which help reduce coastal erosion and pollution, provide shelter from storms, and serve as a vital link in the marine food web.


Environment Canada Salt Marsh Conservation and Restoration
The loss and fragmentation of coastal wetlands in Atlantic Canada, including saltmarshes, brackish marshes, barachois ponds, and small intertidal estuaries, is one of the most severe and publicized cases of wetland loss in Canada.

Estuarine Ecosystem
The Estuarine System…consists of deepwater subtidal habitats and adjacent tidal wetlands that are usually semienclosed by land but have open, partly obstructed, or sporadic access to the open ocean, and in which ocean water is at least occasionally diluted by freshwater runoff from the land. The salinity may be periodically increased above that of the open ocean by evaporation. Along some low-energy coastlines there is appreciable dilution of sea water. Offshore areas with typical estuarine plants and animals, such as mangroves…and eastern oysters…are also included in the Estuarine System.

Estuary Guide to Morphological Changes
This website is essentially a guide that aims to provide an overview of how to identify morphological change within estuaries, as a basis for sound management. The guide is written to try and help those working on estuaries to find their way to the main sources of knowledge and information.

Global Mangrove Database and Information System
The GMDIS is a project of the International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems (ISME) with financial support from the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and of the Prefectural Government of Okinawa. GLOMIS is based at Okinawa, Japan and coordinates four Regional Centres located in Brazil, Fiji, Ghana and Malaysia.

NOAA and the Estuary Restoration Act
This site provides information on activities mandated by the Act, as well as related projects and resources that serve to support the goal of restoring one million acres of estuarine habitat.  These include a restoration plan database, and A National Strategy to Restore Coastal and Estuarine Habitat, published by Restore America’s Estuaries as a companion document to the ERA Council Strategy.

Your Wetlands
In 2005, partners from the San Francisco Bay Joint Venture who have been actively working to protect and restore wetlands in San Pablo Bay came together to find ways to educate the traveling public about the wetlands and projects along the 17 mile stretch of State Highway 37, now known as the North Bay Flyway Highway.

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